Water Quality Studies

KEI specializes in marine water quality monitoring, watershed and stormwater studies, BMP effectiveness assessments, and other receiving water investigations. Over the last five decades, KEI has provided leading innovations and approaches to cost-effectively help our clients meet their permit-required monitoring and reporting obligations for stormwater, wastewater, and industrial discharges. 

ISCO portable sampler and bubbler module used for stream sampling


  • NPDES stormwater monitoring for MS4 and CSO municipalities during wet- and dry-weather flows 

  • CGP and IGP stormwater monitoring, including construction SWPPP site inspections, management, and audits 

  • NPDES/APDES outfall and receiving water monitoring 

  • Influent/effluent/sludge sampling and analysis 

  • BMP and LID effectiveness studies (structural devices and non-structural O&M measures) 

  • CWA Sections 401 and 404 water quality certification monitoring 

  • Plans and submittal preparation/review (QAPP, SWPPP, SAP, NOI, NOPC, NOT, PAEP, REAP, WPCP, dewatering plans, creek diversion plans, etc.) 

  • Dye dilution studies 

  • Customized design, fabrication, installation, maintenance, and operation of automated equipment, including sonde deployments  

  • ID/IC monitoring; I&I studies 

  • Trash monitoring (qualitative and quantitative methods) 

  • Data handling with SWAMP compatibility; CEDEN data submittals; SMARTS uploads 

Innovations in monitoring include the development of automated and telemetered sampling systems, accurate flow-weighted stormwater sampling, bioassay testing, receiving water studies coupled with contaminant input measurements, and ultra-low level organic and inorganic pollutant collection and measurement methods. In addition to precise determination of water quality, our methods enable accurate estimation of pollutant loads so that attainment of TMDL waste load allocations may be demonstrated. We have established and implemented stormwater monitoring programs throughout nearly every region of California and within several other states.

Creek sampling and flow measurements
Influent grab sampling and flow monitoring using a Thel-mar weir

Many of these programs have involved empirical BMP effectiveness evaluations of stormwater treatment control devices including detention basins, constructed wetlands, biofiltration devices, media filters, infiltration devices, hydrodynamic separators, drop inlet filters, and porous pavement. Water quality monitoring has included analysis of ambient receiving waters in a variety of conditions ranging from the California coast to the Alaskan Arctic, in both marine and freshwater environments.

Niskin CTD drogue launch in Anchorage, AK (Cook Inlet)